Carbon 14 and carbon dating
The cause of this difference is thought to be a solar flare, as the same signal is found in C in tree rings around the world, including Germany, Russia, the United States, and New Zealand.[x] Other researchers have noted similar findings.[xi] Do we know whether other solar flares like this occurred thousands of years ago? Heavy or light carbon atoms can become trapped, or at least concentrated, in “carbon reservoirs” where carbon isotopes do not quickly mix with the atmosphere.[xii] As a result, some modern deep ocean organics show a carbon age of 1,500 carbon years, for example.Nearby limestone can also affect carbon isotope concentrations, giving false ages—or at least ages that need even more corrections. Geologic indicators show that atmospheric COC concentration, again making artifacts look older than they are. Several thousand years ago, Earth’s magnetic field may have been twice as strong as today, assuming today’s decay rate.[xiv] This would have slowed the rate at which cosmic radiation generates .However, at the moment of death, the amount of carbon-14 begins to decrease because it is unstable, while the amount of carbon-12 remains constant in the sample.Half of the carbon-14 degrades every 5,730 years as indicated by its half-life.To measure the amount of radiocarbon left in a artifact, scientists burn a small piece to convert it into carbon dioxide gas.Radiation counters are used to detect the electrons given off by decaying Carbon-14 as it turns into nitrogen.
Carbon dating assigns ages to once-living materials such as wood, bone, teeth, and shells.
Both Carbon-12 and Carbon-13 are stable, but Carbon-14 decays by very weak beta decay to nitrogen-14 with a half-life of approximately 5,730 years.
After the organism dies it stops taking in new carbon.
It is widely accepted that the mass burning of coal during the industrial revolution released an enormous amount of C ratio before the industrial revolution, and modern carbon dating takes this into account by running experimental measurements through a calibration formula.[vii] But how do we know what the ratio was like thousands of years ago? The dating system hangs on these types of assumptions! Several studies have shown: 1) significant solar flares have occurred in the past, and 2) these flares have an impact on carbon levels in the atmosphere.
For example, in AD 774–775 there was an increase of 1.2% in the C content of tree rings, which was about 20 times as high as the background rate of variation.[ix] This “spike” was followed by a decline that lasted several years.
Radiocarbon dating is a method of estimating the age of organic material.