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“There are three Bulgarian realities,” says Daniel Kaddik, the Sofia-based director of the Friedrich Naumann Foundation in southeast Europe.“People with an average salary don’t live a good life here, with prices for food, energy and other things that are comparable with elsewhere in Europe.” “Then there is a relatively small middle class who have their own bubble, and work in start-ups or international companies, and live in some areas of Sofia that are comparable with parts of Berlin, for example.” “Then there’s the upper class, which is detached from everything else.The exhibition brought some cultural sparkle to Bulgaria’s six-month presidency of the EU, and may also have added a little lustre to Bojkov’s shadowy reputation.Established in 2004, the Thrace Foundation says it funds research and improves access to museums and protection of cultural heritage while caring for its founder’s collection of more than 3,000 precious artefacts.The upshot is that more than 40 per cent of Bulgarians are now at risk of poverty and social exclusion – twice the proportion of Germans who find themselves in the same predicament.In addition, while on average the top one-fifth of people in EU states earn 5.2 times more than the bottom one-fifth, in Bulgaria the haves make more than eight times more than the have-nots – without accounting for undeclared wealth.Bojkov, whose name is sometimes spelled Vasil Bozhkov, is thought to be Bulgaria’s richest man, with an empire spanning construction to gambling operations that he built during his nation’s chaotic and sometimes bloody switch from communism to capitalism in the 1990s.With the Thrace Foundation perhaps the tycoon nicknamed “The Skull” is trying to give something back to the poorest and most unequal country in the EU.
“In Sofia I’ve already seen three.” The economy is growing at around 3.5 per cent, but the World Bank says it needs to expand “by at least 4 per cent per year over the next 25 years for Bulgaria to catch up with average EU income levels and thus boost shared prosperity”.
The Varna I cemetery, on the Bulgarian Black Sea coast, is one of the most remarkable sites in European prehistory, with the world’s earliest large-scale assemblage of gold artifacts.
Modeling of the first series of 14 accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) dates yielded a duration of occupation at the site of ca. However, there were insufficient paired human–animal dates for a full consideration of the question of the marine reservoir effect.
Here, a fuller set of 71 dates from 53 graves is presented.
We identify a small reservoir effect in a number of individuals based on C, as well as carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes.The overall span of activity covers ~120–260 years (93.6% prob.).